Ingredient Substitutions Chart

Allspice: 1 teaspoon = 1/2 tsp cinnamon and 1/2 tsp ground cloves

Apple Pie Spice: 1 tsp = 1/2 tsp cinnamon, 1/4 tsp nutmeg and 1/4 cloves

Arrowroot Starch: 1 tsp = 1 TBSP flour and 1 1/2 teaspoon cornstarch

Baking powder: 1 tsp =

  • 1/4 tsp baking soda plus 5/8 tsp cream of tartar or...
  • 1/4 tsp baking soda plus 1/2 cup sour milk or buttermilk or yogurt (decrease liquid called for in recipe by 1/2 cup) or...
  • 1/4 tsp baking soda plus 1/2 TBSP vinegar or lemon juice used with sweet milk to make 1/2 cup (decrease liquid called for in recipe by 1/2 cup) or...
  • 1/4 tsp baking soda plus 1/4 to 1/2 cup molasses (decrease liquid in recipe by 1 to 2 tablespoons) or...
  • 1/3 tsp baking soda plus 1/2 tsp cream of tartar

Bay leaf: 1 whole = 1/4 tsp dried bay leaves

Beau monde: 1 tsp =

  • 1 tsp seasoning salt or
  • 1/2 teaspoon table salt plus dash of garlic, onion and celery salts or powders

Beef stock base: 2 teaspoons = 1 instant beef bouillon cube

Bread crumbs: 1/3 cup = 1 slice of bread dry

Butter: 1 cup =

  • 7/8 to 1 cup Crisco plus 1/2 teaspoon salt or
  • 7/8 cup oil plus 1/2 teaspoon salt or
  • 7/8 cup lard plus 1/2 teaspoon salt or
  • 1 cup margarine or
  • 7/8 cup oil

Carob powder: 3 TBSP + 2 oz water = 1 oz unsweetened chocolate

Catsup: 1 cup = 1 cup tomato sauce, 1/2 cup sugar + 2 TBSP cooking vinegar

Chicken stock (instant): 1 1/2 tsp = 1 chicken bouillon cube base

Chili sauce: 1 cup = 1 cup tomato sauce, 1/4 cup brown sugar, 2 TBSP vinegar, 1/4 tsp cinnamon, dash of ground cloves and dash of allspice

Chives: 2 tsp chopped = 2 tsp finely chopped green onion tops

Chocolate chips (semisweet): 1 oz = 1 oz sweet cooking chocolate

Chocolate (semisweet): 1-2/3 ounces = 1 oz unsweetened chocolate + 4 tsp sugar

Chocolate (unsweetened):

  • 1 ounce = 3 TBSP cocoa plus 1 TBSP unsweetened butter or
  • 3 TBSP carob powder +2 TBSP water
Cocoa: 1/4 cup or 4 TBSP = 1 oz chocolate and decrease fat in recipe by 1/2 TBSP

Coconut: 1 TBSP dry = 1 1/2 tsp fresh

Coconut Cream: 1 cup = 1 cup milk cream

Coconut Milk: 1 cup = 1 cup milk

Corn Syrup: 1 cup =

  • 1 cup sugar + 1/4 cup liquid (use whatever liquid is called for in the recipe) or
  • 1 cup honey

Cornstarch: 1 tablespoon =

  • 2 tablespoons all-purpose flour (for thickening) or
  • 4 to 6 teaspoons quick-cooking tapioca
Cracker crumbs: 3/4 cup = 1 cup bread crumbs

Cream cheese: Use part skim milk ricotta cheese or lowfat cottage cheese beaten until smooth

Cream (half and half): 1 cup =

  • 7/8 cup whole milk plus 1/2 TBSP butter or margarine or
  • 3 TBSP oil plus milk to equal 1 cup or
  • 1 cup evaporated milk

Cream (heavy): 1 cup =

  • 3/4 cup milk plus 1/3 cup butter/margarine or
  • 2/3 cup buttermilk plus 1/3 cup oil or
  • Evaporated skim milk or
  • equal parts of part-skim milk ricotta cheese and nonfat yogurt beaten until smooth (this mixture cannot be heated because of separation)
Cream (light): 1 cup =

  • 1 cup undiluted evaporated milk or
  • 14 tablespoons milk plus 3 tablespoons butter or margarine
Sour Cream: 1 cup =

  • 3 TBSP butter plus 7/8 cup sour milk or
  • 7/8 cup buttermilk plus 3 TBSP butter

Whipped Cream:
  • Chill a 13 oz. can of evaporated milk for 12 hours. Add 1 tsp lemon juice. Whip until stiff or
  • Beat until stiff: 1/2 cup ice-cold water and 1/2 cup nonfat dry milk. Add 1/2 cup sugar, slowly, while beating. Then add 2 TBSP lemon juice and beat until mixed well.

Whipping cream: 1 cup =

  • 2 TBSP lemon juice, 2 TBSP sugar, 1 cup evaporated milk or
  • 3/4 cup milk plus 1/3 cup butter (for cooking only)
Cream of tartar: 1/2 teaspoon = 1 1/2 teaspoon lemon juice or vinegar

Egg white: 1 egg white =
  • 2 1/4 tsp nonfat dry milk powder + 2 tsp vegetable oil or
  • In cookies and cakes only -- 1 egg white = use 2 TBSP water + 1/2 tsp baking powder
  • In cookie and cake recipes that call for 2 or 3 eggs, each egg white = 2 TBSP flour, 1/2 TBSP shortening, 1/2 tsp baking powder, 2 TBSP liquid (use liquid called for in recipe)

Extracts: 1 tsp = 1/4 tsp oil of similar flavor

Flour: 1 TBSP =

  • 1/2 TBSP cornstarch, potato all-purpose starch, rice starch or arrowroot (for thickening) starch or
  • 1 TBSP granular tapioca or
  • 2 to 3 teaspoons quick-cooking tapioca or
  • 1 TBSP waxy rice flour or
  • 1 TBSP waxy corn flour

Cake Flour: 1 cup sifted = 1 cup minus 2 TBSP sifted all-purpose flour

Pastry Flour: 1 cup = 7/8 cup all-purpose flour

Dried Herbs: 1 tsp = 1 TBSP fresh, finely cut

Honey: 1 cup = 1 1/4 cups sugar + 1/4 cup liquid (use liquid called for in recipe)

Maple sugar: 1/2 cup = 1 cup maple syrup

Maple sugar: 1 TBSP = 1 TBSP white granulated sugar (grated and packed)

Mayonnaise: use 1 cup sour cream, 1 cup yogurt, or 1 cup cottage cheese (pureed in a blender)

Butter Milk: 1 cup =

  • 1 cup plain yogurt or
  • 1 cup minus 1 TBSP milk + 1 TBSP lemon juice/vinegar (let stand 5 to 10 minutes) or
  • 1 cup milk + 1 3/4 tsp cream of tartar

Evaporated Milk: 1 can = 1 cup nonfat dry milk + 1 3/4 cups warm water

Sweetened Milk: 1 can = Add 1 cup plus 2 tablespoons dry milk powder to 1/2 cup warm water. Mix well. Add 3/4 cup sugar and stir until smooth.

Molasses: 1 cup =

  • 3/4 cup sugar plus 2 tsp baking powder (increase liquid called for in recipe by 5 tablespoons and decrease baking soda by 1/2 teaspoon) or
  • 3/4 cup sugar plus 1 1/4 tsp cream of tartar (increase liquid called for in recipe by 5 tablespoons)

Pumpkin pie spice: 1 teaspoon = 1/2 tsp cinnamon, 1/4 tsp ginger, 1/8 tsp allspice + 1/8 tsp nutmeg

Rice: 1 cup regular =

  • 1 cup cooked bulgur wheat or
  • 1 cup cooked pearl barley

Melted Shortening: 1 cup =1 cup cooking oil

Shortening: 1 cup =

  • 1 cup minus 2 tablespoons lard (used in baking) or
  • 1-1/8 cups butter or margarine (decrease salt called for in recipe by 1/2 tsp)

Sour cream: 1 cup =

  • 7/8 cup sour milk/buttermilk + cultured 1/3 cup butter/margarine or
  • Blend until smooth: 1/3 cup buttermilk, 1 TBSP lemon juice + 1 cup cottage cheese or
  • 1-1/8 cups non-fat dry milk powder, 1/2 cup warm water, and 1 TBSP vinegar (mixture will thicken in refrigerator in a few hours) or
  • 1 cup evaporated milk (room temp) plus 1 TBSP vinegar (allow to sit until it clabbers) or
  • 1 cup plain yogurt (if cooking add 1 TBSP cornstarch to each cup to prevent separating) or
  • 3/4 cup milk, 3/4 teaspoon lemon juice + 1/3 cup butter/margarine or
  • 1 cup cottage cheese and 2 or 3 tsp of lemon juice, pureed in blender

Brown Sugar: 1 cup (firmly packed) =

  • 1 cup granular sugar packed or
  • 1 cup granulated sugar plus 1/4 cup molasses

Sugar: 1 cup =

  • 3/4 cup powdered sugar or
  • 3/4 cup maple syrup (Reduce liquid called for in recipe by 3 tablespoons) or
  • 1 cup honey (decrease liquid called for in recipe by 1/4 cup). In baked goods, add 1/2 tsp of baking soda for each cup of honey substituted and lower baking temperature 25 degrees. In cookie recipes using eggs and no additional liquid, increase the flour by about 2 tablespoons per cup of honey. Chill before shaping and baking. Half of the sugar in cakes can be replaced with honey. Two-thirds of the sugar can be replaced in fruit bars, but replace no more than a third of the sugar in ginger snaps with honey. When making cakes or cookies, first mix honey with the fat or the liquid, then mix with other ingredients. If this is not done, a soggy layer may form on top of the baked product


Tomato juice: 1 cup = 1/2 cup tomato sauce plus 1/2 cup water

Tomato sauce: 15 oz can = 6 oz can tomato paste + 1 cup water

Wine: 1 cup = 13 TBSP water, 3 TBSP lemon juice + 1 TBSP sugar

Worcestershire: 1 tsp = 1 tsp bottled steak sauce sauce

Plain Yogurt: 1 cup =

  • 1/2 cup buttermilk or
  • 1 cup cottage cheese blended until smooth or
  • 1 cup sour cream

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